WORLD’S DIABETES DAY
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by insulin deficiency or insensitivity of the body to respond or fully utilise the insulin produced. It is commonly known as high blood glucose/sugar. Blood glucose is the main source of energy but having too much in the blood can cause health problems. Diabetes has no cure and several measures can be taken to manage diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus: characterised by insulin deficiency that is the body is unable to produce enough insulin. Major cause of this is destruction of insulin-producing cells (pancreatic cells) by the immune system. It is common in children and young adults.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: the body does not make use of insulin well. This is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. It is common in middle aged and older people but can develop at any age.
Gestational diabetes mellitus: develops in pregnant women may be due to placental hormones. The symptoms often resolve after pregnancy but leaves the women a greater chance of developing diabetes later in life.
Others: cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus, monogenic diabetes mellitus.
Signs and Symptoms
Frequent urination, weight loss, increased hunger, increased thirst, blurry vision, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, slow wound healing, extreme unexplained fatigue.
NOTE!!! Diabetes mellitus may occur without symptoms.
• Diabetes can occur in anyone.
• Between 1980 and 2014, the number of people with diabetes mellitus rose from 108 million to 422 million and prevalence of diabetes in adults over 18 years rose from 4.7% to 8.5%.
• Approximately 2 million deaths were recorded in 2015 to be directly related to diabetes.
• WHO has projected that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death by 2030.
• Diabetes can be especially hard on women because the disease can affect both the mothers and their unborn children.
• Diabetes can cause difficulties during pregnancy.
• For women who do not have diabetes, pregnancy brings the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.
• Women have high risk of developing diabetes and is complication due to the high prevalence of women that are overweight and do not exercise regularly.
Prevention:The REALS Approach!
R Rethink your drink
• Drink water instead of juice or soda
• Peel and eat the fruit instead of drinking fruit juice
• Always stay hydrated (you can get a water bottle)
• Drink coffee or tea
E Eat healthy and smart
• Avoid meals high in refined carbs, sugar and large protein
• Take low carb and high fibre diet
• Consume foods high in vitamin D
• Minimize intake of processed food
• Eat slowly and listen to music while eating instead of watching TV
• Always read food labels
• Cook with less oil or butter
• Portion should be one-quarter of grains and protein and half of vegetables and fruits
• Snack on vegetables and always have a handful of nuts in your bag
• Don’t eat when bored, upset or unhappy
A Always be active
• Exercise regularly and make it fun by taking dance classes or swimming or bike riding
• Take the stairs (as far as you can go)
L Live healthy
• Quit smoking
• Alcohol should be every now and then
• Relax and take care of your body
• Lose weight if overweight
• Avoid sedentary behaviours
S See you Doctor
• Go to the hospital for check-ups regularly especially for adults older than 45 years, have history of gestational diabetes or and heart or kidney disease, family history of diabetes or any heart or kidney disease.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus can be pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic.
Non-Pharmacologic: the REALS APPROACH
Pharmacologic: high blood glucose, particularly type 1 diabetes mellitus require treatment with INSULIN while type 2 diabetes mellitus can be treated with oral anti-diabetes drugs (e.g. Glemid and Metformin, ) but may also require insulin therapy.
Some cost-saving interventions may be required:
• Visit to the dietician and meal plan.
• Blood pressure check and control.
• Screening and treatment for retinopathy.
• Blood lipid check and control.